Monday, February 25, 2013

Default-Gateway vs Default-Network

Learn the differences between the default-gateway, ip route and ip default-network commands, and how and where to use them.

Sunday, February 24, 2013


Saturday, February 23, 2013



Points to Remember .

-Need fault tolerance for L3 gateway
-Default Gateway assigned to customer is virtual IP address
-Both routers should provide service for default virtual gateway address.
-One of these routers(active)should respond for arp request from client.
-There will be fake mac-address for virtual default gateway.
-Here active router will have two mac address one for its own interface and next for default virtual gateway.
-Even if standby router changed to active , there won't be change in virtual gateway IP address and corresponding mac address.

Here is how preempt works. The router with the highest priority, becomes the active router, and will take over even
 if another router (with a lower priority) had been the active router.
The default is that preempt is not enabled. In this default state, if a router boots up, and sees that there is an active router, the new router (even if it has a higher priority) will simply let the current active router stay active.



Thursday, February 21, 2013

Business Email Etiquette Rules

Email etiquette can help you build healthy business communications, eliminate email overload and boost your email productivity. See below the most complete list of business email etiquette rules.

Make it easy to read and understand your message

  1. Use complete sentences, not random unfinished thoughts.
  2. Include all necessary details in your message to help your reader get the point.
  3. Do not use slang, specific terms or acronyms which are not widely used. Otherwise your recipient might have problems understanding you.
  4. Make your message brief and to the point. Concentrate on the subject matter.
  5. You can choose to quote questions before answering them. Do not overuse quoting all original text however, as a ton of '>>>>' clutters the message and prevents it from looking neat. Edit out unnecessary information from the message you are responding to.

Use proper grammar, spelling and punctuation

  1. Use a proper sentence structure in your email messages.
  2. Spell the name of the recipient correctly.
  3. Do not type your message in ALL CAPITAL LETTERS - this is considered shouting according to email etiquette rules. Besides, the ALL CAPS text is difficult to read.
  4. Do not type your email in all small case either - this gives the perception of a lack of education.
  5. Avoid using informal words like "coz", "ain't", "gotta", etc. This can make you sound uneducated.

Be careful with styling and formatting

  1. Refrain from using fancy fonts and multiple font colors. A business email is supposed to look formal and restrained.
  2. Do not use patterned backgrounds; they will make your message harder to read.
  3. Use formatting like italics or bold fonts sparingly. Rely on words, not formatting, as your email may not look as intended in a recipient's email client.
  4. Refrain from using too many embedded images in your message; otherwise some spam filters may regard your email as spam.
  5. Use plain text over HTML when in doubt.

Use a neutral tone of communication

  1. Refrain from getting too informal before you get to know the recipient better.
  2. Avoid using multiple instances of an exclamation mark (!!!) or a question mark (???).
  3. Avoid using emoticons in business emails; this may look unprofessional. You should only use them (sparingly) when you've reached a familiar level of communication with your recipient.
  4. Don't use sarcasm or irony; they can be misinterpreted easily.
  5. Chill out before sending a nasty reply to a nasty email. A rude reply can make the things even worse.

Be thoughtful and polite

  1. Start every email with a greeting. Make sure to use an appropriate salutation.
  2. Never forget to include a closing phrase at the end of the message, e.g. Best regards, Sincerely, or Thank you.
  3. Don't hesitate to thank your recipient in case they were of help.
  4. Do not forward email messages without your personal comment or a short personal note; otherwise this may sound impolite.
  5. Do not send business attachments after business hours when they will likely be using a smartphone or other personal device to read your email.

Take advantage of signatures, email templates and auto-replies

  1. Use an email signature with your contact details. This will give your recipient more options to continue communication.
  2. Using an automated signature will save the time spent on typing a salutation, name and contact details.
  3. Use the auto-reply feature when on vacation.
  4. Use email templates or standard responses to save time when replying to frequently asked questions. Make sure to edit the template text before sending to make it sound more personal.
  5. If you have no time to reply to an important message right away, send a short notification email stating when you'll be able to attend to the request.

Check it twice before you send

  1. Check your email before sending to see if you wanted to send an attachment but forgot to include it. Ask for permission before sending huge attachments.
  2. Make sure the Subject field in not empty. The subject line should reflect the main idea of the message.
  3. Make sure the address or addresses in the To: field are those you wish to send your message to.
  4. Spell-check your message before sending: a message with typos can be treated as unserious or even be ignored.
  5. Before clicking Send, reread your email to make sure it is not emotionally charged or impolite.

Don't harm your recipient

  1. Don't overuse the CC: feature. This can clutter the Inboxes of those you've contacted and expose their email addresses to each other which might cause a privacy infringement problem.
  2. When forwarding or replying to an email message with multiple recipients noted in the To: or Cc: fields, remove the addresses of those to whom your reply does not apply.
  3. Do not use the "Reply to All" option for no special reason. Configure your email client to use the "Reply" option by default, not "Reply to All".
  4. Do not broadcast product or service information emails to those who didn't subscribe to your mailings.
  5. Make sure to provide an UNSUBSCRIBE option if you send an opt-in newsletter.

Abide by laws and regulations regarding email

  1. Follow your company's emailing rules and policies.
  2. Do not use your corporate email account for private communications.
  3. Do not forward corporate emails to anybody besides your company employees, clients, partners or company service providers.
  4. Do not use an internal corporate mailing list for personal announcements unless you have been permitted to do so.
  5. Before sending bulk mail to a list of foreign recipients, make sure to learn what you can and cannot send to the recipients in that specific country.

Manage your emails efficiently

  1. Use an email client to track all emails in one place and be able to attend to them in a timely manner.
  2. Respond to emails within 24 hours of a business day.
  3. Before accusing someone of ignoring your message, check to see if their reply was mistakenly deleted or sent to your Trash or Junk folder. Use the EmailTray email client to have all good emails rescued from the Spam folder.
  4. Add an email address of each new valuable contact to your approved or white list so that their future emails could go through your spam filter or ISP filtering system.
  5. Use anti-viral software and update it on a regular basis to avoid the risk of sending viruses via your corporate email account.
Following the email etiquette rules in your everyday life will give you a definite advantage. Business email etiquette rules will primarily save the time of your email recipients and encourage them to pay you back with the same courtesy.

Creating S.M.A.R.T. Goals

Specific: A specific goal has a much greater chance of being accomplished than a general goal. To set a specific goal you must answer the six “W” questions:
*Who:      Who is involved?
*What:     What do I want to accomplish?
*Where:    Identify a location.
*When:     Establish a time frame.
*Which:    Identify requirements and constraints.
*Why:      Specific reasons, purpose or benefits of accomplishing the goal.

EXAMPLE:  A general goal would be, “Get in shape.” But a specific goal would say, “Join a health club and workout 3 days a week.”

Measurable - Establish concrete criteria for measuring progress toward the attainment of each goal you set.
When you measure your progress, you stay on track, reach your target dates, and experience the exhilaration of achievement that spurs you on to continued effort required to reach your goal.
To determine if your goal is measurable, ask questions such as……
How much? How many?
How will I know when it is accomplished?

Attainable – When you identify goals that are most important to you, you begin to figure out ways you can make them come true. You develop the attitudes, abilities, skills, and financial capacity to reach them. You begin seeing previously overlooked opportunities to bring yourself closer to the achievement of your goals.
You can attain most any goal you set when you plan your steps wisely and establish a time frame that allows you to carry out those steps. Goals that may have seemed far away and out of reach eventually move closer and become attainable, not because your goals shrink, but because you grow and expand to match them. When you list your goals you build your self-image. You see yourself as worthy of these goals, and develop the traits and personality that allow you to possess them.

Realistic- To be realistic, a goal must represent an objective toward which you are both willing and able to work. A goal can be both high and realistic; you are the only one who can decide just how high your goal should be. But be sure that every goal represents substantial progress.
A high goal is frequently easier to reach than a low one because a low goal exerts low motivational force. Some of the hardest jobs you ever accomplished actually seem easy simply because they were a labor of love.

Timely – A goal should be grounded within a time frame. With no time frame tied to it there’s no sense of urgency. If you want to lose 10 lbs, when do you want to lose it by? “Someday” won’t work. But if you anchor it within a timeframe, “by May 1st”, then you’ve set your unconscious mind into motion to begin working on the goal.
Your goal is probably realistic if you truly believe that it can be accomplished. Additional ways to know if your goal is realistic is to determine if you have accomplished anything similar in the past or ask yourself what conditions would have to exist to accomplish this goal.
T can also stand for Tangible – A goal is tangible when you can experience it with one of the senses, that is, taste, touch, smell, sight or hearing.
When your goal is tangible you have a better chance of making it specific and measurable and thus attainable.


Circle the number that best represents your normal behavior or attitude using this scale.
0 = Never 1 = Rarely 2 = Sometimes 3 = Often 4 = Always
_____ 1. I seem to do my best work when I am under pressure.
_____ 2. I often blame the rush and press of external things for my failure to spend deep,
introspective time with myself.
_____ 3. I’m often frustrated by the slowness of people and things around me. I hate to
wait or stand in line.
_____ 4. I feel guilty when I take time off from work.
_____ 5. I always seem to be rushing between places and events.
_____ 6. I frequently find myself pushing people away so that I can finish a project.
_____ 7. I feel anxious when I’m out of touch with the office for more than a few
_____ 8. I’m often precoccupied with one thing when I’m doing something else.
_____ 9. I’m at my best when I’m handling a crisis situation.
_____ 10. The adrenaline rush from a new crisis seems more satisfying to me than the
accomplishment of long-term results.
_____ 11. I often give up quality time with important people in my life to handle a crisis.
_____ 12. I assume people will naturally understand if I have to disappoint them or let
things go to handle a crisis.
_____ 13. I rely on solving some crisis to give my day a sense of meaning and purpose.
_____ 14. I often eat lunch or other meals while I work.
_____ 15. I keep thinking that someday I’ll be able to do what I really want to do.
_____ 16. A huge stack in my “out” basket at the end of the day makes me feel like I’ve
been really productive.
Total Score:____________
0-25 Low urgency mindset, 26-45 Strong urgency mindset, 46+ Urgency addiction
Covey's four quadrant strategy:
 Judge yourself . Which is your quadrant .