Q. What is Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)?
A. IPv6 is the next generation of the protocol that runs the Internet. IPv6 is currently a set of requests for comments (RFCs) and draft standards in the IETF. IPv6 is designed to improve upon IPv4's scalability and ease of configuration and to reintroduce the original TCP/IP benefits for global networking. These issues are central to the competitiveness and performance of all types of network-dependent
businesses. Its use will also expand the capabilities of the Internet to enable a variety of valuable and exciting scenarios, including large-scale peer-to-peer and mobile applications.
Q. Is there an IPv5?
A. IPv5 was once an experimental draft proposal in the IETF defining a real-time streaming protocol. It did not result in a standard deployed on production networks. It is actually called the Internet Streaming Protocol:
Q. What applications will IPv6 enable?
A. Any application that runs on top of IPv4 can be modified to run over IPv6. However, IPv6 enables—through its effectively infinite address space—simple mass-market deployment of peer-to-peer applications and use of nontraditional Internet-connected devices.
These include consumer electronics devices such as DVD players, TVs, and digital cameras and residential IP telephony and video conferencing equipment. Some of these devices are enabled today using IPv4, though at a small scale and with significant operational and development complexity. IPv6 restores innovative freedom to the application developer at the same time it enables
cost-effective support and deployment for network operators.
Q. How many addresses will IPv6 accommodate? How does that compare to IPv4?
A. IPv6 supports addresses that have four times the number of bits as those of IPv4 addresses (128 instead of 32). IPv6 is expected to accommodate, theoretically, an almost infinite number of IP addresses (3.4340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456).
This is four billion times four billion times four billion (2^^96) times the size of the IPv4 address space (2^^32).
In a theoretical sense this is approximately 665,570,793,348,866,943,898,599 addresses per square meter of the surface of planet
Earth (assuming Earth’s surface is 511,263,971,197,990 square meters).
In the long run, though, the focus on IPv6 is about much more than the number of individual addresses. The IPv6 address space is setup to enable many more edge networks (called subnets). To simplify configuration and plug-and-play operation models, the actual number of addresses in use will be substantially less than the theoretical maximum.
Q. Is IPv6 more secure than IPv4?
A. Because it restores the original end-to-end model of TCP/IP and has IP Security (IPSec) embedded in the core IPv6 specifications, IPv6 is often presented as being more secure than IPv4. Unfortunately, Internet security is far more complex than just IPSec support.
Rationale for IPV6
USA is still sitting pretty
Asia and America received single class C for entire country
=current ip addresses are poorly allocated
-Agencies needing class C asked for class B
-estimates on IPv4 exhaustion largely debated
=New network devices on the rise
=NAT (our current solution) is now seen as a hindrance to innovation
=Potential future features: ipsec everywhere, mobility, simpler header
The goal is to finally eliminate NAT.
Address size moved from 32-bit (ipv4) to 128-bit (IPv6)
Its a lot of address . 85% of the address space will be untouched.
To make addresses more manageable, divided into 8 groups of 4 hex characters each
Since this is still huge so they came up with shortening processes.
Eliminate groups of consecutive zeros..once
Drop leading zeros
Loopback in IPv6 is ::1
IPV6 Header (header is bigger takes more bandwidth but processing is less because of few fields compare to IPV4)
ver===traffic class=== flow lable
payload length == next header == hop limit
source add (128)
destination address (128 bits)
Types of Communication and Address
Unicast : one to one
Multicast : one to many
Anycast : one to closest
Link-local scope address: layer 2 Domain
Unique/Site-local scope address : organization (eq to private ip4 address)
global scope address: internet address
But there is no unique/site address used so the ipv6 address will contain link-local and global scope.
LINK LOCAL ADDRESSES
assigned automatically as an ipv6 host comes online
similar to the 169.254.x.x addresses of IPV4
always begin with FE80 (first 10 bits : 1111 1110 10) followed by 54 bits of zeros
Last 64 bits is the 48-bit mac address with "FFEE" squeezed in the middle
Lets say mac address is : 0019.D122.DCF3
1111 1110 1000 0000 0000 .....0019.D1FF.FE22.DCF3
Have their high-level 3 bits set to 001 (2000::/3)
Global-routing_prefix == subnet-id == interface_ID
Nbits 64-N bits 64 bits
Global routing prefix is 48 bits or less
Subnet-id is comprised of whatever bits are left over after global routing prefix
The primary addresses expected to comprise the IPv6 internet are from 2001::/16 subnet.
If we provide the subnet address, it will automatically generate the interface address
int loopback 10
ipv6 address 2001:1234:ABCD:5678::/64 eui-64 (extended unique identifier)
This will automatically generate interface id
show ipv6 int loopback 10
Implementing IPv6 Routing and Routing Protocols
Configuring IPv6 addressing
Things to cover:
-link local address
-manual LL address
-ICMP ND (goodbye arp)
- multicast address
ipv6 address 2001:11AA::1/64
show ipv6 int f0/0
ipv6 address 2001:11AA::2/64
show ip6 int f0/0
ping ipv6 2001:11AA::1
ipv6 address 2001
show ipv6 int br
debug ipv6 nd(neighbor discovery)
icmp neighbor discovery will be the replacement of ARP
ND process(neighbor discovery)
NS(neighbor solicitation is kind of multicast address in local network to find mac address)
After NS, receiver sends NA (neighbor advertisement) to multicast address
FF02::16 == multicast address
below addresses are automatically generated all multicast groups
FF02::1 ==all (replacement of broadcast)
FF02::2 == all routers in segment
FF02::1::FF00:2 looking last 2 address for global address
FF02::1:FFE8:0 unique link local address
new arp only bothers to whom u want to contact.
u can assign manually a link-local address or can do auto-assign
There is no arp in ipv6 instead use show ipv6 neighbor to see neighbor mac address
ipv6 address FE80::1:2222:3333 link-local (if you don't assign subnet mask it assumes as link-local)
Implementing IPv6 routing and routing protocols
turn on ipv6 routing
ipv6 unicast-routing (enables ipv6 unicast routing)
ipv6 route 2001:33aa::/64 2001:22aa::2 (static route)
show ipv6 route
L == local interface
L == link local
ipv6 route ::/0 2001:11aa::1(destination address)===(default route)
traceroute ipv6 2001:11aa::2
IPv6 RIPng (next generation)
all features are same as RIP now here multicast address is FF02::9
only config is change
show ipv6 route
ipv6 rip CCNP enable (turns on rip and send advertise on all interfaces associated with that tag, no network command here)
it use Link-local address
The above tag (CCNP) should not be same in the neighbors
debug ipv6 rip
show ipv6 protocols
here udp port used is 521
Everything is same except few minor diff in syntax
a payload is carried over
link-local address is used for communication
enabled under the interface itself
authentication is removed
ipv6 ospf 1 area 10
ipv6 router ospf 1
show ipv6 ospf neighbors
show ipv6 route
OI == ospf inter area routes
Transitioning to IPv6
The Migration to IPv6
Technology exists to provide a smooth, non-pressured transition
- Dual-stack routes (interfaces support both ipv4 and ipv6 connections)
- tunneling (6 to 4 and 4 to 6) ==can create GRE or VPN tunneling
- NAT protocol translation (NAT-PT) == translation between IPv6 client and ipv4 internet and vice versa.