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Saturday, July 14, 2012

ccnp route BGP


BGP
========
routing protocol of internet

One and only the external gateway protocol ie BGP . This is kind of EGP protocol.
The most common places where BGP used is ISP, basically incase of dual ISP to access the internet.
mainly focussed on the connection from ISP to the organization.

Using BGP , public ip can be advertise to multiple ISP's for redundancy purpose.
main purpose of BGP is multi-homing

BGP runs on top of TCP(port 179) unlike other protocols which has own L4 protocols
TCP is used for reliablility.
Updates are incremental and triggered
metric is the biggest you have ever seen
Slowest routing protocol on the planet to converge because of the design.
Most tunable routing protocols through attributes one by one breaking ties.

STYLES of BGP implementations
==============================
From the perspective of customer.
By running BGP , you can advertise your address blocks to both ISPs .If one links fails , it will use other.
For out going , to ISP use default route.

Other type of Implementaiton is partial updates:
===============
using optimize connection.

next is using full updates
=============================
router will keep full routing table for all the connected ISPs each. This is most flexible but resource
consumpting.

BGP algorithms
==============
BGP is technically distance vector protocol,but most call it a "path vector" protocol
Without tuning, BGP behaves just like RIP
Here AS (autonoums system) works as hops.

BGP Packet and types
===================
Open : starts the session
Keepalive : check whether neighbor is alive
Update : network reachablity exchanges
Notification : something bad has happend ; close session

Tables:
======
Neighbor table: the connected BGP friends
BGP table: a list of all BGP routes
routing table: a list of the best routes

Implementation and tuning
=================================
IBGP vs EBGP
More of parent protocol to both
everything here based on AS . Its kind of foundation.
there are public and private AS

IBGP :
When you establish BGP relationship within the same AS no

EBGP :
When you establish BGP relationship between different AS no. Especially in case of connection to ISP
here neighbors can be things that are not directly connected ..isn't it weird.

BGP is kind of application. It can work on any kind of existing routing protocols.

BGP neighbor configuration
==============================
are always manually configured means need to configure statically.

ISP router
conf t
router bgp 6500 (bgp is up and running) and now we can form of neighbor
neighbor 10.1.45.1 remote-as 5500

show ip bgp summary

R4 (organizational router)
router bgp 5500
neighbor 10.1.45.2 remote-as 6500

show ip bgp summary

IBGP:
BGP neighbors need not to be directly connected
here R1 and R4 are not dir conn

R4
router bgp 5500
in this case neighbor is done with loopback ip address
then advertise those into ospf
int lo 4
ip address 4.4.4.4 255.255.255.255 (host route)
router ospf 1
network 4.4.4.4. 0.0.0.0 area 0
advertising into ospf

R1
int lo 1
ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
network 1.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0

R4
router bgp 5500
neighbor 1.1.1.1 update-source loopback 4
neighbor 1.1.1.1 remote-as 5500

do same thing in R1

show ip bgp sum

In bgp, the network command is to see what BGP network to advertise other used is neighbor

What if we have redundancy links with ISP?
use loopback and do load balancing.

R5: ISP router
int lo 5
ip add 5.5.5.5 255.255.255.255
ip route 4.4.4.4 255.255.255.255 10.1.45.1

EBGP neighbor relation must be by default directly connected
but when u are connecting through loopback it doesn't see that way. it takes it as one hop away. So we use ebgp multi-point

R4 
neighbor 5.5.5.5 ebgp-multihop 2
basically, we will give the max to 5 hops to avoid loops.

Advertising networks into BGP
BGP has auto-summary
BGP synchronization

Two ways to get networks into BGP
- network command
- redistribution

ISP router
conf t
router bgp 6500
network 50.0.0.0
tells wat network to advertise but don't tell about what interface relationship to form with, neighbor reln is static

show ip bgp
*> == means valid and best route

R4 internal route
show ip bgp
*> ==it receives the routes
or 
R5
to advertise particular class c rather than class a network
router bgp 6500
no network 50.0.0.0
network 50.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
show ip bgp

2nd method is redistribution
============================
redistributing private ip address to BGP is not a good way

R5
access-list 50 deny 200.1.5.0
access-list 50 deny 200.1.6.0
access-list 50 permit any

router bgp 6500
redistribute connected route-map FILTER ( pass all connected interface through that route-map)

show route-map

show access-list

show ip bgp

BGP does auto-summarization with redistribute

Earlier version before 12.2(8)T are having auto-summary turned on

router bgp 6500
no auto-summary


BGP synchronization
===================

R1
without caret you won't be in the routing table

-Do not use or advertise a route learned via IBGP until the same route has been learned from the internal routing

protocol (like ospf)

bgp synchronization is off by default in later IOS after 12.2(8)T

route bgp 5500
no synchronization (turns off sync)

BGP next-hop processing
========================
- For EBGP peers:
change next hop address on advertised
neighbor 1.1.1.1 next-hop-itself

Tuning Attributes
=======================
WHat are BGP attributes ?
Attributes are ways that you can "TAG" incoming or outgoing BGP routes

Some attributes are well-known (everyone supports) while others are optional

Some attributes are mandatory (must be in the update) while others are discretionary

Some attributes are transitive (travel from router to router) while others are non-transitive

Well known Attributes:
======================
autonomous system path (AS-PATH-MANDATORY)
next hop address (mandatory)
origin (mandatory)
local preference (discretionary)
atomic aggregate(discretionary)

Optional Attributes:
====================
- aggregator
- multi-exit discriminator (MED/METRIC)

How BGP finds the best path
=============================
1. Ignore routes with an inaccessible next hop address
2. Prefer the path with the highest weight. === Cisco propriety
3. Prefer the path with the highest LOCAL_PREF
4. Prefer the path that was locally originated via a network command
5. Prefer the path with the shortest AS_PATH
6. Prefer the path with the lowest origin type.
7. Prefer the path with the lowest multi-exit discriminator(MED)
8. Prefer eBGP over IBGP paths
9. Prefer the path with the lowest IGP metric to the BGP next hop.
10.Determine if multiple paths require installation in the routing table for BGP multipath.
11. When both paths are external, prefer the path that was received first (the oldest one)
12.Prefer the route that comes from the BGP router with the lowest router ID
13.If the originator or RID is the same for multiple paths, prefer the path with the minimum cluster list length.
14. Prefer the path that comes from the lowest neighbor address.

R
show ip bgp sum
show ip bgp
show ip route


in bgp hops are AS

Tuning BGP attributres
=======================

R1
show ip bgp
router bgp 5500
no sync == turn off synch
clear ip bgp *

show ip bgp sum

don't change your next hop address for IBGP network

Solution:
router bgo 5500
neighbor 10.1.12.1 next-hop-self
clear ip bgp *

How to use BGP attributes to make more intelligent routes

With the weight, higher is better

two ways to set weight.
router bgp 5500
neighbor 101.1.13.2(neighbor) weight 500

show ip bgp
clear ip bgp *
show ip bgp

router bgp 5500
no neighbor 10.1.13.2 weight 500

if u want to temporarily disable neighbor
neighbor 10.1.13.2 shutdown

clear ip bgp *

shorter AS path is preferred.

The origin is where is route came from
i - came from somewhere entering network command
? - if somewhere redistribute routes into bgp

prefer the path with lowest origin type

i

e - actual exterior gateway protocol. u should never see a route with origin e. because EGP is nowhere in the picture.

Local preference :
industry marking way to tell which route is better

Weight is local to the router and stays on the router . Local preference can be set on router and is advertise to other

routers in AS

Local means when u advertise it will not leave the AS. So you can influence routers within AS.

R3
router bgp 5500
bgp default local-preference  700 (higher is better)

another way is

router bgp 5500
ip access-list standarad ROUTES_for_R3
permit 150.1.50.0 0.0.0.255
permit 150.2.50.0 0.0.0.255

ip access-lit standad ROUTES_for_R2
permit 200.0.0.0 0.255.255.255

route-map LOCAL_PREF permit 10 address RoUTES_for_R3
set local-preference 1000 (default local pref is 100)

route-map LOCAL_PREF permit 20
match ip address ROUTE_FOR_R2
set local-preference 10

show route-map

show ip bgp sum

router bgp 5500
neighbor 10.1.36.2 route-map LOCAL_PRF in
do clear ip bgp *


metric ie MED

only attribute to try and influence other AS
In case of metric lower is better

roueter bgp 5500
default-metric 200 (default is 0)

Configuring Path control
==========================
What is policy Routing?
The programming language of routing tables

Series of if then statement, applied to interface

R
ip access-list extended CLIENT1
permit ip host 192.168.1.20 any

route-map POLICY 10 (seq no)
route-map is programming language for router
match ip address CLIENT1
set ip next-hop 201.1.1.2

do show route map

ip access-list extended CLIENT2
permit tcp host 192.168.1.21 any eq 23
------------------------------------ 443

route-map POLCIY 20
macth ip address CLIENT2
set ip next-hop 200.1.1.2

do show route-map

route-map POLICY permit 30 (permit is assumed)
set ip next-hop 201.1.1.2
if there is no match under the policy, it match everything

show ip int br

now apply it on interface

ip policy route-map POLICY

PRTG is the tracking program

ip sla monitor schedule 1 start-time now life forever

track 1 rtr 1 reachability

Q. What is the order of preference of attributes when some or all are
applied to one neighbor in BGP?
A. The order of preference varies depending on whether the attributes are applied for inbound
updates or outbound updates.
For inbound updates the order of preference is:
1. route−map
2. filter−list
3. prefix−list, distribute−list
For outbound updates the order of preference is:
1. prefix−list, distribute−list
2. filter−list
3. route−map
Note: The attributes prefix−list and distribute−list are mutually exclusive, and only one
command (neighbor prefix−list or neighbor distribute−list) can be applied to each inbound
or outbound direction for a particular neighbor.

Q. What does a next hop of 0.0.0.0 mean in the show ip bgp command
output?
A. A network in the BGP table with a next hop address of 0.0.0.0 means that the network is
locally originated via redistribution of Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) into BGP, or via a
network or aggregate command in the BGP configuration.

Q. How can I verify if a BGP router is announcing its BGP networks and
propagating them to the global BGP mesh?
A. To check if the IP blocks are announced to the directly connected ISP, use the following
commands. The show ip bgp neighbors [address] advertise−routes command shows which
messages are being sent. The show ip bgp neighbors [address] routes command shows
which messages are being received.
Note: The show ip bgp neighbors [address] advertise−routes command does not take into
account
command output will be changed to reflect the outbound policies.
To verify how the IP blocks are getting propagated to the global BGP mesh via the directly
connected ISP, log onto a route server on the Internet and look for the BGP entries of the
prefix in the route server.

Q. Do eBGP sessions between confederations modify the next hop?
A. No, eBGP sessions between confederation sub−ASes does not modify the next hop
attribute. All iBGP rules still apply to have the whole AS behave as a single entity. The
metric and local preference values also remain unaltered among confederation eBGP peers.

Q. In eBGP sessions, which IP address is sent as the next hop?
A. In eBGP peering, the next hop is the IP address of the neighbor that announced the route.
However, when the route is advertised on a multi−access media (such as Ethernet or Frame
Relay), the next hop is usually the IP address of the router interface connected to that media,
which originated the route

Q. Does the route reflector change the next hop attribute of a reflected
prefix?
A. By default, the next hop attribute is not changed when a prefix is reflected by route
reflector. However, using the neighbor next−hop−self command, you can change the
attribute of the next hop for prefixes reflected from an eBGP peer to any route reflector client.


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